A Leather Glossary, A-L
Aniline: This refers to leather which has been stained by brushing, padding, or spraying and has not received any pigmented coating.
Buffed Leather: Leather from which the top surface of the grain has been removed by an abrasive or bladed cylinder or, less generally, by hand.
Calf: The skin of a young cow.
Chrome Tanned: Leather tanned either solely with chromium salts or with chromium salts together with small amounts of another tanning agent used to assist the chrome-tanning process.
Combination Tanned: Leather tanned with two or more tanning agents.
Corrected Grain: This refers to a leather on which the grain layer has been partially removed, and upon which a new surface has been built.
Cowhide: Leather made from a cow’s hide or its grain split.
Crocking: Transferring of color or finish from leather to other materials by rubbing or abrasion.
Crust: Leather that has been tanned, dyed and dried, but not finished.
Embossed Leather: Leather embossed or printed with a raised pattern.
Fat Tanned: Hide which has been converted into leather by treatments involving the incorporation of soft animal fats.
Finish: The final process or processes in the manufacture of dressed leather.
Fleshing: Scrapings removed from hides by the flesher.
Full grain: Leather bearing the original grain surface as exposed by the removal of the epidermis and with none of the surface removed by buffing, snuffing, or splitting.
Grain: The pattern, characterized by the pores and peculiar to the animal concerned, visible on the outer surface of a hide or skin after the hair has been removed.
Hand Antiqued: Also referred to as "hand rubbing". The process where skilled craftsmen hand rub a contrasting color onto the surface of the leather to accentuate the natural grain.
Hand: Term that describes leather's softness and feel.
Hide: The outer skin covering of a larger mature animal.
Leather: A general term for hide or skin with its original fibrous structure intact which has been tanned to be imputrescible.
Liming:The process of removing hair from a raw hide through the use of chemicals.